The St. Petersburg Bridge Tour was a rolling performance by artist Robert Hickman celebrating the beauty of public space by calling attention to bridges, as the architecture of daily life, which often go unnoticed. The tour promoted alternative types of transportation and safe cycling. Bridges overcome obstacles to connect communities. The wheel is a universal symbol of unity and the earth's cycles of renewal. St. Petersburg boasts a world famous collection of bridges. It has 342 culturally significant spans, the majority of which were crossed by Hickman on only one wheel. The project was a part of Art Prospect Festival, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 25 – 28, 2014, which was produced by CEC ArtsLink and curated by U.S. public art expert Kendal Henry. Special thanks to Susan Katz, Fritzie Brown, and Jane Lombard.
Robert Hickman's installations and sculptures were exhibited in solo and group shows at New York venues PS1, SculptureCenter, Exit Art, White Columns, Socrates Sculpture Park, Smack Mellon and Saint Peters Church, among many others. His permanent public commissions are at 72nd Street and Broadway subway station in New York (Laced Canopy); Bryant Avenue pedestrian bridge, Hunts Point, Bronx (Silvered); Capital Community College, Hartford, CT; and Roosevelt Island Station, New York. Hickman has been reviewed in publications such as Art News, Sculpture Magazine, Time Out, New York Magazine, The New York Times, The New York Post, New York Daily News, and The Miami Herald. Hickman’s work was recognized by many national and international awards, among them two CEC Artslink Project Grants and a New York City MASterwork Award for Best New Public Art from The Municipal Society of New York. An Ohio native, Hickman currently is an Assistant Adjunct Professor at Hunter College, New York. He lives and works in Brooklyn.
Liteyny Bridge across the Neva River 9.20.2014
The Liteyny Bridge (Russian: Лите́йный мост) is the second permanent bridge across the Neva river in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It connects Liteyny Prospekt with Vyborgsky district. The bridge's length is 396 meters, the width is 34 meters. At the vicinity of the Liteyny Bridge, the Neva river reaches the maximum depth of 24 meters.
The ancient maps reveal that even before the city was founded, there was a crossing on the way from Russia to Sweden approximately at the location of the modern bridge. At one bank of the river the road from Novgorod was ending, and at another bank the road to Vyborg was starting.
The decision to build a permanent bridge was made after rough ice destroyed the temporary floating bridge on April 4, 1865. Even though similar events have happened in the past, this particular one caused strong reaction from the government, and special expert commission was created. But it took until 1869 to agree on the location for the bridge. On April 22, 1871 the open contest was declared, and total of 17 projects were submitted. As a result of the contest, the project under the Vestminster banner was chosen by the city authorities. However the transport ministry rejected it and created the expert commission of its own and declared a winner to be engineer colonel A. Struve who was one of the members of the commission.
The building of the new bridge started on August 30, 1875. The work conditions were difficult, and during the next four years there were two fatal accidents which caused death of 14 people. The official opening ceremony took place on October 1, 1879. Struve was promoted to the rank of Major General.
The bridge is named Liteyney which literally means Foundry after the Liteyny Prospekt and Liteyny district which in turn were named after big foundry which was established on the left bank in 1711. In 1903 the bridge was renamed Aleksandrovsky in name of tzar Alexander II. But this name was never adopted by the public and after the October Revolution in 1917 the original name Liteyny Bridge was restored.
Soon after the opening, the bridge was equipped with electrical lights - the invention of Russian inventor Pavel Yablochkov. It was the first bridge to get electrical lighting and for the long time it remained the only one, since the monopoly of gas producers in city opposed it.
Voina in St. Petersburg
THE DICK OF THE MATTER
by Matthew Bown
It took members of Voina (pronounced va-ee-NA) 23 seconds to draw a very large, erect penis on the Liteiny Bridge in St Petersburg.
They’d been practicing for weeks in a car park and had it down. The job had to be done quickly, because there was usually only half a minute or so between the stopping of the traffic and the raising of the bridge. A few accomplices -- a cyclist, a hysterical woman in a car and an apparent drunkard --distracted the security guards’ attention. Five artists -- including one, Natalya Sokol, aka Koza (Goat), who carried her child Kasper on her back -- scampered over the bridge.
They poured white emulsion diluted with water, 55 litres of liquid in all, out of paint-tins. To depict the balls and the glans, they doubled up the tins for extra thickness: don’t say this wasn’t art! The resulting image had all the insouciance of a toilet-stall scrawl; just a diagram, really. The bridge rose at 1:40 am on June 15, 2010, in front of the local FSB (Federal Security Service) building, known as the Big House. The work was titled A Dick Captured By the FSB.
The biggest “up yours” ever?
What's in a name? The Russian word in the title, khui, is more offensive than “dick” and is used in Russian rather like “fuck” in English, ubiquitous and un-translatable at once. The philologist Aleksei Plutser-Sarno, co-activist of Voina, wrote a book of several hundred pages on the various uses of the word “khui.” Where we would say “fuck knows,” a Russian might say “khui knows;” where we would say “fuck off,” a Russian might say “go to khui,” and so on. It’s a word that is aggressive, anarchistic and nihilistic in its usages; there's scarcely any potential for tenderness in it; it isn't likely to be used between lovers in the way that “fuck” can be. And “Voina” itself simply means “war.” The Voina attitude, then, is pure Fuck You.
The Voina influences don’t really come from graffiti or street art, or from cerebral Russian non-conformism, or from elegant Hans Haacke-style analysis of our discontents. There’s a little bit of Viennese Actionism in Voina, and a little bit of performance artist Alexander Brener, whose speciality used to be defecating at other artists’ shows, till he got driven out of Moscow, Berlin and London. But unlike the Viennese, Voina don’t have hang-ups about sex (Communism enabled Russia to bypass the whole cult of Freud): they use it strictly for publicity purposes. Unlike Brener they have no beef with the art world -- they have a beef with the real world. Their spiritual roots aren’t in art at all but in pre-1917 Russian anarchism and direct action, in the half-crazy idealism (or is that nihilism?) that simmers in the novels of Dostoevsky.
Not that I think there’s anything crazy about Voina. Theirs is a response to abuses of power and the lack of civil rights in Russia. A Dick Captured By the FSB was part of a succession of works all ridiculing the establishment in one way or another. A Fuck for the Teddy Bear Heir was an orgy staged in Moscow’s Biological Museum: “teddy bear heir” referred to Dmitri Medvedev, Putin’s successor (“Medvedev” means “bear”). Storm of the White House was a skull-and-crossbones projected onto the White House. How To Snatch A Chicken? The Tale Of How One Cunt Fed The Whole Group involved the theft of a chicken from a shop, which was smuggled out while concealed in a Voina member’s vagina. Decembrists’ Commemoration was a mock-hanging of migrant workers and homosexuals. A recent action by the "militant-feminist" faction of Voina, which includes a Facebook friend of mine, Nadya Tolokno, was a pro-lesbian action called Kiss Rubbish (“rubbish” being a slang term for the police), and involved forcibly kissing policewomen. It sounds fun, but viewing the video is uncomfortable: there’s a degree of violence involved.
In September last year, Voina activists Oleg Vorotnikov, a former Moscow University philosophy student, and the group’s unofficial leader Leonid Nikolaev, aka Crazy Lenya, were arrested for their role in another violent work, Palace Coup, which involved overturning police cars with the officers still inside. That made it clear, after the Dick, that they weren’t interested in making pretty pictures. Banksy heard about the arrests on the radio and, with the help of British film-maker Nick Sturdee, who is currently making a documentary on the group, sent them £80,000 to pay bail and for the necessary lawyers. The activists gave most of the money away to help political prisoners. No one should underestimate the dedication of the group’s members: they face being wiretapped, followed, arrested and assaulted in custody. Nikolaev and Vorotnikov still face prosecution and are confined by bail conditions to St Petersburg; Plutser-Sarno is said to be on the run.
Is the work of Voina art or politics? Crazy Lenya is on record as saying “I don’t give a fuck about art.” Only an artist would say that, of course. The group, which has activists in Moscow and St. Petersburg, wouldn’t distinguish between the two. In a sense there is no art that is not political and the esthetic is implicit in all political presentations. Image-makers seek to control everything, from the graying, or not, of the president’s hair to the release of TV footage of the current war. But to my mind, Voina’s fundamental impulse is political.
The technique of undermining the institutions of power by mockery is a classic radical tool, used, for example, by the Serbian youth group Otpor in their struggle against Slobodan Milosevic in 2000. Art is the medium. The esthetic experience is made explicit and overt and the art world and its activists (including, in this case, myself and the text you are reading) are used as the primary channel for dissemination of the message. The art world is a bridgehead into the mass media. Art becomes, to adapt Clausewitz’s phrase, “a continuation of policy by other means.”
On April 7, 2011, at a glitzy ceremony held in the Roman Abramovich- and Dasha Zhukova-funded Garage Centre for Contemporary Art in Moscow, Voina received the 400,000 rouble ($14,000) Innovation Art Prize for A Dick Captured By The FSB. The prize is organized by the State Centre for Contemporary Arts, and sponsored by the Ministry of Culture, but it seems unlikely that the Ministry had any direct influence over the choice. Earlier, in what seemed to be a response to official pressure, Voina had been excluded from the shortlist on the flimsy grounds that they hadn’t signed a document agreeing to participate, but they were reinstated after critics chastised the prize for its cowardice. But how to understand the jury’s choice? As merely a vote for the best art? That’s probably how the organisers of the prize will spin it as what is sure to become a scandal gains force.
Jury member Ekaterina Degot has written about the deliberations. She describes the winning work as a symbol of developing popular hatred for the ruling party, United Russia, and says that although most of the jury members didn’t like the work very much, none of them wanted to vote against it, thereby placing themselves on the wrong side of history. One member, Vienna-based Peter Weibel, who is slated to curate the upcoming Moscow Biennale, excused himself, perhaps feeling he was in a no-win situation.
So, it would seem, in the face of an imminent revolution in Russia, the jurors were pre-occupied with their own immortal reputations. Whatever the case, the big dick on the bridge is part of the canon now. Is it also the successor to that other great phallic event in St Petersburg, the blasts from the battleship Aurora that heralded the October 1917 uprising? Who -- or khui? -- knows?
MATTHEW BOWN is an English art dealer with a gallery in Berlin and an office in Moscow.
Sampsonievsky Bridge across the Bolshaya Nevka River 9.20.2014
Crossing the Bolshaya Nevka River next to the Cruiser Avrora, the Sampsonievsky Bridge (Сампсониевский мост) is a 212-meter, seven-span bascule bridge that dates in its current form from 1958. The original pontoon Grenadiers Bridge existed near this site until 1847. Wooden bridges were built and rebuilt on the site throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. The current structure, fully renovated in 2000, consists of steel spans resting on granite-faced reinforced-concrete piers. The name refers to a nearby cathedral. The bridge was known as Freedom Bridge under Soviet rule.
Trinity (Troitskiy) Bridge across the Neva River 9.20.2014
Trinity Bridge (Russian: Тро́ицкий мост, Troitskiy Most) is a bascule bridge across the Neva in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It connects Kamennoostrovsky Prospect with Suvorovskaya Square. It was the third permanent bridge across the Neva, built between 1897 and 1903 by the French firm Société de Construction des Batignolles. It is 582 meters (1,909 ft) long and 23.6 meters (77 ft) wide.
The bridge takes its name from the Old Trinity Cathedral which used to stand at its northern end. In the 20th century it was known as Equality Bridge (Russian: мост Ра́венства, 1918-1934) and Kirovsky Bridge (Russian: Ки́ровский мост, 1934-1999).
History and construction
In 1803 the Voskresensky ponton bridge, which was built in 1786 near Voskresensky Prospect (now Chernyshevsky Prospect), was moved to the Summer Garden. In 1825, the ponton Suvorovsky Bridge was built to link Suvorovskaya Square with Troitskaya (Trinity) Square.
In 1892 a contest for constructing a permanent Troitsky Bridge was announced. There were 16 entrants from Russian and European engineers, including one from the French engineer Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the famous Eiffel Tower in Paris. The winner was the out-of-competition design by Arthur Flachet, Vincent Chabrol, and René Patouillard from the French Société de Construction des Batignolles. Some contributions to their proposal were provided by a team of Russian engineers. A special commission from the Imperial Academy of Arts, including Leon Benois also participated in the project.
Construction began on 12 August 1897. Félix Faure, the president of France was present at the ceremony. In the same political spirit, Nicholas II of Russia laid the foundation stone for the Pont Alexandre III in Paris, another memorial to the Franco-Russian Alliance. The bridge was completed in 1903, in time for the 200-year anniversary of Saint Petersburg.
Originally the bridge had nine spans. Five of these were permanent metallic riveted spans, with novel console-arch-beam systems and gradually increasing span length from banks to the middle of the river. A three-arch granite viaduct linked the metallic central section to the right bank, and a two-winged bascule span joined it to the left bank. The design of the central spans, in which single uncut girders bridge more than one span, significantly relieves the stress on the central part of the arches, decreasing the support required in the river and giving the span structures a gentle arch shape. The bridge is decorated with cast iron gratings with artistic casting, granite pylons with lanterns and metallic three-color lanterns in the Art Nouveau style.
The obelisks flanking the entrance to the bridge from Suvorov Square were remodeled in 1955. In 1965-1967 the bascule span was rebuilt as a one-winged, lifting design. Its length was extended to 43 meters (141 ft) and its appearance modeled on the other metal spans. A granite arch slope was set on the left bank. During the reconstruction water slopes were enlarged and granite benches were set along left bank abutment.
Andrey Izgrebin and Robert Hickman, Sep 26, 2014
Upper Swan Bridge over the Swan Canal - at the Palace Embankment 9.20.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
Swan Canal (Swan channel) - Canal in St. Petersburg, linking the river Neva and Moika between Summer Garden (Island Summer Garden) and the Champs de Mars (1st Admiralty Island).
Dug between 1711-1719.
Name of the channel is due to the fact that in the XVIII century it moved swans from neighboring ponds.
In the years 1955-1956 the coast fortified granite banquets (architect L. Noskov, AD engineer Gutzeit), similar to those that were later built along the adjoining site Sinks. On the right bank of the Swan Canal, on the corner of the Palace Embankment of the Neva, is the former home of Betsky. On the left bank - stone terrace in the Summer Garden.
Length: 648 m. Average water flow: 1.4 m³ / s.
The Swan channel is spanned by two bridges:
Upper Swan Bridge - at the Palace Embankment (Верхний Лебяжий мост — по Дворцовой набережной)
Lower Swan Bridge - on the Moika Embankment (Нижний Лебяжий мост — по набережной Мойки)
Former home Betsky (now - Institute of Culture)
Field of Mars
Prachechny Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.20.2014
From The St. Petersburg Encyclopedia:
The Prachechny Bridge (Прачечный мост) crosses the Fontanka River, where is meets the Neva, linking the Dvortsovaya Embankment and Kutuzova Embankment. The name of the bridge refers to Prachechny Yard (Laundry Yard, where the palace laundries were located) next to the Fontanka. The bridge, one of the first in St. Petersburg to be made of stone, was built in 1766-1769 (architects I.L. Rossi, T.I. Nasonov), when the stone embankments of the Fontanka were laid. The three-span arched bridge is made of granite. In 1926-1928, the bases of the piers were reinforced (engineer B.D. Vasilyev). The bridge is 40.9 metres long and 14.3 metres wide.
Ride Time: 44:59
Distance: 2.93 miles
5 Bridges Crossed
Panteleymonovsky Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
Panteleymonovsky Bridge (Пантелеймо́новский мост) crosses the Fontanka River in the Tsentralny District of Saint Petersburg. The bridge was erected in 1823. From 1915 until 1923 it was known as "Gangutskiy Bridge". In 1923 it was renamed as "Pestel Bridge" after Decembrist Pavel Pestel. In 1991 the original name was reinstated.
The bridge is located at the confluence of the Moika River and the Fontanka. It is 43 meters long and 23.7 meters wide.
The first wooden bridge was built here in 1725. In 1748 a Baroque-style bridge was built in its place designed by Bartolomeo Rastrelli. This last structure was damaged in the flood of 1777 and was demolished. In 1823 a narrow suspension bridge was built by von Tretter and Khristianovich. In the beginning of the 20th century, it was widened and converted into an arch bridge by Ilyin and Pshenitskiy.
Belinsky Bridge across the Fontanka River
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
Belinsky bridge (Мост Белинского) crosses the Fontanka in the alignment of Belinsky street. Until 1923 it was called Simeon, named after a nearby Church of St. Simeon and Anna. This name came from the nearby barracks of the Semenov Regiment.
A wooden bridge was built here in 1733 on pile foundations. In 1785, it was rebuilt as the first characteristic tower type bridge by architect Pirone..
In 1859 the tower was demolished, and the wooden swing span was replaced with stone. Unlike the rest of the rebuilt bridge over the Fontanka (except old-Kalinkin and University Bridge) Bridge Belinsky retained characteristic outlines spans. In 1890, the sidewalk was brought to the side of the console. In 1988, it approved a project to restore the historic appearance of the bridge with the erection of the towers, but because of the onset of the economic difficulties has not been realized. In 1999 the bridge was repaired.
Anichkov Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
The Anichkov Bridge (Аничков мост, Anichkov Most) is the first and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The current bridge, built in 1841-42 and reconstructed in 1906-08, combines a simple form with some spectacular decorations. As well as its four famous horse sculptures (1849–50), the bridge has some of the most celebrated ornate iron railings in Saint Petersburg. The structure is mentioned in the works of Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoevsky.
The first bridge was built in 1715-16 by order of Peter the Great, and named after its engineer, Mikhail Anichkov. The bridge was made of wood with several spans built on piles of supports lying just above the Fontanka River. It was designed by Domenico Trezzini. Nothing remains of this first bridge. As the city grew and river traffic increased, plans were unveiled in 1721 to create a new drawbridge. The Anichkov Bridge was one of seven three-span stone drawbridges with towers built across the Fontanka River in the late 18th century, of which the Lomonosov Bridge and the Stary Kalinkin Bridge are the two still extant. At that time, the Anichkov Bridge was an especially popular attraction on Nevsky Prospekt, as well as a popular subject for illustrations and paintings.
By the 1840s the 18th-century design, especially its large towers, was deemed unsuitable for the growing amount of traffic passing over the Anichkov Bridge along Nevsky Prospekt. In 1841-42 a grander structure, more appropriate to the width of Nevsky Prospekt, was built on the site under the supervision of Lt. General A. D. Gotman. The new bridge was made of stone, and had three spans closed off with gently sloping arches. This simple, concise form corresponded well with the massive cast-iron fencing bordering Anichkov Bridge and mermaid cast-iron railings, originally designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the Palace Bridge in Berlin. However, the bridge's stone arches were a continual source of problems, and in 1906-08 the bridge had once again to be reconstructed and its arches reinforced.
The Horse Tamers were designed by the Russian sculptor, Baron Peter Klodt von Jurgensburg. They rank among the city's most recognizable landmarks. The theme derives from the colossal Roman marbles, often identified with the Dioscuri, prominently sited on the Quirinal Hill, Rome. Guillaume Coustou's baroque marble horse tamers for Marly-le-Roi, the Chevaux de Marly, were resited at the opening to the Champs-Elysées, Paris, at the Revolution.
The St Petersburg sculptures have an interesting history. Prior to 1851, when the definitive versions were installed in the bridge, Tsar Nicholas I had given two of them to Prussian King Frederick William IV in 1842, and the other two had been sent in 1846 to Naples as a sign of gratitude for the hospitality shown to the Tsar during his trip there (see here and here). "Petersburg lore tells of Peter Klodt's death immediately upon embarrassing discovery that tongues had been omitted on two of the four sculptural horses". Another urban legend has it that Klodt depicted his powerful enemy's face under the tail of one of the bronze stallions.
In 1941, during the Second World War, when the bridge came under heavy fire from German artillery, the sculptures were removed from their platforms and buried in the nearby Anichkov Palace garden. The bridge suffered serious damage during the war, but has been fully restored. As a memorial, the pedestal of one of the statues retains the effects of artillery fire, with a plaque explaining this to passersby. Prior to the tercentenary of Saint Petersburg, the statues were removed from the bridge again and underwent thorough restoration.
Lomonosov Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
Lomonosov Bridge (Мост Ломоносова) crosses the Fontanka River in alignment with Lomonosova Street It is the best preserved example of movable tower bridges that was typical for Saint Petersburg in the 18th century.
The original Tchernyshov Bridge, measuring 63 metres long by 14,7 metres wide, was constructed between 1785 and 1787. During the mid-19th century industrialization other bridges had their towers removed to facilitate traffic, but Tchernyshov Bridge retained the original appearance, with four rusticated Doric pavilions with small domed caps. Its movable middle section of wood was replaced by a metal one in 1912. The bridge was renamed after Mikhail Lomonosov in 1948.
Letushkov Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
The Leshtukov bridge (Лештуков мост) crosses the Fontanka in the alignment of the Jambul lane. On the other side of the bridge is the Bolshoi Drama Theater Tovstonogov.
Jambul lane was previously was called Leshtukov lane (on behalf of the court physician Lestocq Elizabeth, who owned land along the Fontanka).
The bridge was built in 1907 specifically for visitors Suvorinsky Theater (now BDT) in the form of a wooden bridge pyatiprolёtnogo. In 1952, replaced by a metal. In 1998, the reconstruction project was originally conceived in 1988 Yeshe engineer SUE "Legiproinzhproekt" L. Soboleva, finally allowed to open the vehicle traffic on this busy section between the two banks of the Fontanka.
Modern reconstruction Leshtukova bridge widening of the carriageway was scheduled times, including in the 1980s and 1990s. However, only in the beginning of 1997 to the forms of its customer - SUE "Mostotrest" has definitely come. Was chosen design organization - SUE "Lengiproinzhproject" department of bridges and hydraulic structures, the profile for the design of reconstruction of historic St. Petersburg bridges and embankments. Also in this year, it was decided to abandon the granite steles-light floor lamps, replacing them with metal ldekorirovannye fixtures. The chief architect of the project of reconstruction of the bridge, lanterns and lattice motif upper belt which serves curtain Bolshoi Drama Theater - Alexei Sholokhov. Team Leader - Shindin Youri, Designer - Nina Lebedeva. Blacksmith - Vladimir Volkov. The bridge was officially opened after renovation and expansion of the roadway in 1998 Gubernatorm St. Petersburg. September 26, 2014 in, 80th birthday OV Basilashvili, on decorated newspaper Playbills Leshtukovom bridge in the presence of Prime Minister of Russia DA -Minister Medvedev hosted the opening ceremony radically renewed after three years of reconstruction of the Bolshoi Drama Theater Towstonogow.
Semenovsky Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
Semyonovsky Bridge or Semenovsky Bridge (Семёновский Мост) is a bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It carries the Gorokhovaya Street. It was opened in 1733 as a wooden bridge, then rebuilt in stone in 1788, and subsequently modified in 1857 and 1949. The bridge took its name from the Semenovsky Imperial Guard regiment barracks located nearby.
The area is home to many sightseeing boats going to the Winter Palace, Peter and Paul Fortress, Summer Garden, and the Church of the Savior on Blood.
Gorstkin Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
Gorstkin Bridge (Горсткин мост) is a pedestrian bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, in the continuation of the street Efimova.
Until 1952, the street was called Efimov Gorstkin street by the name of the homeowner, who in the 70-ies of the XIX century, built near the Haymarket Square a number of commercial premises.
A wooden bridge was erected here in 1910. In 1949 the design was replaced with metal, with wooden flooring. Heating pipes are hidden within the bridge.
Obukhovsky Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
The Obukhovsky or Obukhov Bridge (Обуховский мост) crosses the Fontanka River carrying Moskovsky Prospekt.
It was originally built in 1717 as a wooden bridge, and then rebuilt between 1785–86 as a stone bridge. It was named after it's builder. It was substantially modified in 1865 and again between 1938–1940.
The bridge is mentioned at the end of Nikolai Gogol's short story, "The Overcoat". The main character, Akaky Akakievich (or a certain clerk) is rumored to appear as a ghost near the Kalinkin Bridge, searching for his stolen overcoat, and after the story's denouement is seen walking towards the Obukhov Bridge and then vanishes into the darkness of the night.
Izmailovsky Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
The Izmailovsky Bridge (Измайловский мост) was one of seven chain suspension bridges built across the Fontanka River in the 1780s. It links Voznesensky Prospekt with Izmailovsky Prospekt. It is named after the Izmailovsky Regiment, which was once quartered nearby. Izmailovsky Bridge was reconstructed in 1861, when the central opening span and the bridge's original towers were removed and the decorative wrought iron railings were first installed. The bridge offers fine views onto the nearby Trinity Cathedral.
Red Army (Krasnoarmeysky) Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
Pedestrian Krasnoarmeiskiy Bridge
Krasnoarmeysky - "Red Army" - Bridge (Красноармейский мост) crosses the Fontanka River next to the mouth of the Kryukov Canal. The three-arch metal pedestrian bridge was completed in 1956, and was designed to carry heating pipes across the Fontanka. The bridge's abutments and piers are faced in granite, and the span of the bridge is sparsely decorated with simple cast-iron railings and slender cast-iron lampposts supporting pairs of glass orbs. The bridge's position affords fine views down the Kryukov Canal, and onto the domes of the Trinity Cathedral opposite.
Egyptian Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
The Egyptian Bridge (Египетский мост) carries Lermontov Avenue over the Fontanka River in St. Petersburg.
The one-span suspension bridge that it replaced was of historical interest as a monument to early 19th-century Egyptomania. It was constructed in 1825-1826 based on designs by two civil engineers, Von Traitteur and Christianowicz. Its granite abutments were topped with cast-iron sphinxes and hexagonal lanterns. An unusual feature was a pair of cast-iron gates featuring Egyptian-style columns, ornaments, and hieroglyphics, with many details of the ironwork elaborately gilded.
The original bridge, used by both pedestrians and horse-drawn transport, collapsed on January 20, 1905, when a cavalry squadron was marching across it. The present structure, incorporating sphinxes and several other details from the 19th-century bridge, was completed in 1955.
English Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
The English Bridge (Английский мост) is a pedestrian bridge that connects Pokrovsky and Unnamed Island across the Fontanka River in the Admiralty district of St. Petersburg. The bridge is located opposite the English Avenue. The other side is the "Goznak" factory, situated beside the Fontanka River.
Since 1910, there was a pyatiprolёtny wooden bridge located here, which has moved the traffic load along with the Egyptian Bridge. It provided communication between the banks of the Fontanka River after the collapse of Egypt Bridge in 1905.
The modern bridge was built to transport a heating pipe system over the Fontanka River by project engineer AA Kerlikova and architects PAAresheva and VSVasilkovskogo. The construction was carried out in 1962-1963,. The crossing is a trёhprolёtny metal bridge with concrete piers faced with granite. The railing is made of metal, with a simple design, executed by artistic casting. Spherical lights made from frosted glass are mounted on vertical rods. At the ends of the bridge stair descents have been constructed.
The English Bridge is portrayed in the painting "Saint-Petersburg. Washing. English Bridge", 2006 by AA Eliseev, St. Petersburg, Library of Fine Arts.
Old-Kalinkin (Staro-Kalinkin) Bridge across the Fontanka River 9.21.2014
The Staro-Kalinkin Bridge (Старо-Калинкин мост) is the last public bridge before the Fontanka River flows into the Gulf of Finland. It takes its name from the Finnish village - Kallina - which stood near here from the early 17th century. Completed in 1787 to a design almost identical to that of the Lomonosov Bridge, the Staro-Kalinkin Bridge no longer opens, but has otherwise retained its original appearance, including the four elegant granite towers at the corners of the central span. The bridge also offers excellent views of the historic surroundings, which can be seen in panorama
Little Kalinkin (Malo-Kalinkin) Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
The Malo-Kalinkin Bridge is a bridge in Saint-Petersburg, which connects Kolomna Island and Pokrovsky Island, spanning the Griboyedov Canal. It was built in 1783 by engineer I. Borisov, at the same time that the granite embankments of the canal were being constructed.
The name of the bridge is that of Kalinkina village, which was situated at the bridge's location in the 18th century.
The design of the bridge is similar to that of the Pikalov Bridge and other bridges downstream along the Griboyedov Canal; being a three-span wooden bridge with granite piers, with an adjustable middle span. In 1808, the bridge was rebuilt with the width of the deck being increased from 10 metres (33 ft) to 16.22 metres (53.2 ft). The stone pillars were repaired by the dismantling of masonry within two rows of the granite cladding, and the subsequent driving additional piles to better support the bridge.
In the second half of the 19th century the movable middle span of the bridge was replaced. In 1908, in connection with the laying rails for tram routes, the bridge was widened nad metal support beams were installed instead of the original wooden beams, but the historical appearance of the bridge was preserved. In 1952 and 1970, lanterns and granite obelisks were restored on the bridge piers as part of a project undertaken by architect A. L. Rotach.
In 2007 the results of a major overhaul of the bridge were presented by engineer Vyacheslav Shlyakhin:
Light fixtures with lamps and obelisks on the channel supports were restored as replicas of those from the bridge's 1808 appearance.
The foundation of the bridge was strengthened.
Part of the bridge's lattice, earlier destroyed as a result of a transport accident, was restored.
The base of the tram rails running across the bridge was replaced with a reinforced concrete slab, with accompanying restoration of the roadway.
The bridge is mentioned in Nikolai Gogol's short story, « The Overcoat. » The main character, Akaky Akakievich —or a certain clerk— is rumored to appear as a ghost near the bridge, searching for his stolen overcoat.
Kolomensky Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal (background) 9.21.2014
Completed in 1969, The Kolomensky Bridge (Коломенский мост) crosses the Griboedov Canal in the sleepy Kolomna District, hence the name. A 37-meter pedestrian bridge, Kolomesnky Bridge is most remarkable for its engineering, which permits the weight of the span to be supported by aluminium tubes only 270mm in diameter. The bridge is a slender metal structure, and is plainly decorated, with bright green railings and granite-faced abutments and steps. The abutments support tall, thin metal lampposts topped with glass orbs.
Alarchin Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Alarchin Bridge (Аларчин мост) carries Anglisky Prospekt across the Griboedov Canal. The foundations of the current bridge were laid in 1783-85 during the construction of the canal's granite embankments, although a wooden bridge stood at the site for at least 30 years before that. The bridge has been reconstructed and restored several times since, and is noteworthy for its attractive granite lanterns. The name Alarchin appears to be a corruption of Aladchanin, the name of a renowned shipbuilder who lived nearby.
Mogilevsky Bridge Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal (with Church of St. Isidor in the background) 9.21.2014
Carrying Lermontovskiy Prospekt across the Griboedov Canal next to the charming Church of St. Isidor, the Mogilevsky Bridge (Могилёвский мост) is an elegant single-span construction that dates from only 1953, but was designed in the Russian Empire style to blend with its surroundings. The first wooden bridge was built here in 1911, and the current bridge is a reinforced concrete structure, with its abutments and arch faced in traditional pink granite. The bridge's cast-iron railings are copied from those on the Moika River embankments, and it also has elegant street lamps.
Pikalov Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal (with the St. Nicholas Naval Cathedral in the background) 9.21.2014
Crossing the Griboedov Canal at its confluence with the Kryukov Canal, the Pikalov Bridge (Пикалов мост) forms an ensemble with the Staro-Nikolsky and Krasnogvardeysky Bridges, and provides beautiful views onto the Cathedral of St. Nicholas, and onto seven other bridges. The three-span bridge dates back to 1785, when the granite-faced abutments supported wooden spans. The wooden spans were replaced with metal in 1906 and four granite obelisks topped with gold spheres. Later, oval lamps were added to the obelisks. The bridge was restored in 1993.
Staro-Nikolsky Bridge across the Kryukov Canal (with the St. Nicholas Naval Cathedral in the background) 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
Old Nicholas Bridge (Staro-Nikolsky, Pereshivkin, Старо-Никольский мост) crosses the Kryukov Canal to connect Savior and St. Basil's Islands in the Admiralty district of St. Petersburg.
Located at the intersection with the Kryukov Canal and Griboyedov Canal, it forms an ensemble with adjacent Pikalov and Krasnogvardeysky bridges over the Griboyedov Canal on Sadovaya Street.
The bridge was originally constructed in 1793 as the Nikolsky Bridge. It was rebuilt in 1868 as the Staro-Nikolsky Bridge. The bridge is named after nearby St. Nicholas Cathedral.
The Staro-Nikolsky Bridge existed since the digging of the Kryukov Canal in 1717, and is a normal crossing wooden mullion-strut system. The new bridge was built in 1784-1786 years on a standard for this part of the city of bridges project: trёhprolёtny wooden girder bridge on pillars faced with granite rubble, with an adjustable central span. Construction of the bridge was carried out within the framework of reconstruction of the channel. The adjacent embankments were faced with granite in 1806.
During the nineteenth century the bridge was restored. In 1842 the original railing was replaced with forged grill, which has been preserved to the present day.
Between 1906-1908 restructuring of the bridge was carried out for tramway installation by AP engineers Pshenitsky, K. Efimov, and VA Bers. The span's wooden beams were replaced with metal. Waterproofing and paving was replaced with asphalt and concrete in 1988. Between 1994-1995 the moldings were raised and the console was repaved. In 2003, the Committee on the Improvement and Roads Administration of St. Petersburg initiated a major overhaul of the bridge, allocating a budget of 45 million rubles. The repair was completed in 2004 by general contractor Rizalit.
Krasnogvardeysky Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
One of St. Petersburg's finest 20th century bridges, Krasnogvardeysky Bridge (Красногвардейский мост) is spuriously named in honour of Petrograd's Red Guard revolutionary militias. Built in 1957, it is a single-span, pedestrian beam bridge with a simple iron span augmented by impressive granite-faced abutments in high neoclassical style that extend over 3 meters into the water. The abutments support broad, curved steps flanked by petal-shaped walls, and squat obelisks with projecting cast-iron lanterns. The bridge crosses the Griboedov Canal parallel to the Kryukov Canal.
New Nicholas (Novo-Nikolsky) Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
One of the least interesting bridges crossing the Griboedov Canal, the New Nicholas (Novo-Nikolsky) Bridge (Ново-Никольский мост) is a simple single-span construction without ornament. The original cast-iron, single-span bridge, built here between 1835 and 1837, collapsed almost as soon as it was opened, and was replaced in 1841 with an extremely decorative humpbacked cast-iron bridge, designed with the assistance of famous architect Carlo Rossi. Sadly, this bridge only lasted for thirty years before it was replaced. The current reinforce-concrete bridge dates from 1934.
Kharlamov Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
One of the Griboedov Canal's newest bridges, Kharlamov Bridge (Харламов мост), carries Romskogo-Korsakogo Ulitsa across the canal. It is a single-span reinforced concrete bridge with granite facing. It was built to replace a wooden bridge, which had stood on the site since 1753. The bridge's name honors a State Councilor who lived nearby in the 18th century. In comparison to the Griboedov Canal's other bridges, Kharlamov Bridge is woefully lacking in ornament, and even its railings are strictly functional.
Bridge of Four Lions across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
Four Lions Bridge (Львиный_мост) is a pedestrian bridge over the Griboyedov Canal in the Admiralty district of Saint Petersburg, connecting Kazan and Spassky Islands. It was built between 1825-1826 under the project of W. von Tretter and VA Christianovich.
Upstream from the Four Lions Bridge is the Kokushkin bridge. Below stream is the Kharlamov bridge. Four Lions Bridge connects Lion Lane and Little Podyacheskuyu street. The name Lions Bridge comes from the four cast-iron sculptures of lions by sculptor P. Sokolov, located at the corners of the bridge.
Podyachensky Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
Podyacheskie Bridge (Подьяческий мост) crosses the Griboyedov Canal to connect Kazansky and Spassky islands in the Admiralty district of St. Petersburg. The bridge connects Podyacheskie Street with Lantern Alley.
The name comes from the Big Podyacheskaya Street, was named by clerks in the 18th century.
A wooden footbridge was built here in 1906. In 1971-1972, a odnoprolёtny concrete bridge was built by project engineer LN Sobolev and architect LA Noskov. The supporting frames are in the form of consoles involving an imperfect hinge; the invert supports the form. This technique was applied for the first time in 1967 during the construction of the New Stables bridge over the Griboyedov Canal.
The facades are decorated with metal sheets without ornaments. There is a simple grill metal railing. On the four corners of the bridge there are granite obelisks with lanterns, which originally decorated the first cast-iron Alexander bridge over the canal near Vvedenskii at its confluence with the Fontanka. When the channel was filled between 1965-1970, Alexander's Bridge (built in 1808-1814 under the project of architect and engineer VI Geste) was dismantled, and the obelisks were moved to Podyacheskie bridge.
Single-span concrete bridge
Width of the bridge:
Voznesensky Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Crossing the Griboedov Canal along the route of Voznesensky Avenue, the Voznesensky Bridge (ознесенский мост) is a simple, single-span steel structure resting on granite-clad packed-rubble abutments. The bridge dates from 1958, replacing a wooden bridge dating back to the 1780s. It was designed to blend with the historic surroundings, using details from older bridges. The railings are copied from those on Italiansky Bridge, and the ornate street lamps are copied from old photographs of the original Sadovy Bridge.
Kokushkin Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Linking Kokushkin Pereulok with Stoliarny Pereulok on one of the quietest and most picturesque stretches of the Griboedov Canal, Kokushkin Bridge (Кокушкин мост) is a simple, metal, single-span bridge that dates from 1948. The present bridge replaced a wooden bridge that had stood almost unchanged from 1790. Kokushkin Bridge, while far from being the most impressive on the Griboedov Canal, is notable for its fine cast iron decorations, both on the railings and on the body of the bridge.
Hay (Sennoy) Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
The Hay Bridge (Сенной мост) is a bridge across the Griboedov Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The bridge gets its name from the nearby Sennaya Square.
It was first built in 1931 as a single-span pedestrian bridge carrying heating pipes. In 1952, the main span was in need of emergency repair, and the bridge was fully rebuilt by the project of engineer P.B. Bazhenov as an elegant steel structure with cast iron railings.
Design: Arch Bridge
Total length: 23 m
Width: 2.3 m
Demidov Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
The Demidov Bridge (Демидов мост) crosses the Griboyedov Canal connecting Kazansky and Spassky islands in the Admiralteysky District of Saint Petersburg.
The bridge got its name from powerful Demidovs family, who owned a large section of land nearby. It connects two parts of the former Demidov street, which is known today as Grivtzov street. It was initially planned to name the span Bank Bridge, but this name had already take.
In the beginning of the 18th century, at the location of the modern Demidov Bridge, there was a wooden bridge, named Saarsky bridge, becuase it was on the road to Tsarskoe Selo. Betwenn 1834-1835 a single-span arched cast iron bridge was constructed by engineers E.A. Adam and Pierre-Dominique Bazaine. The arched span consisted of 91 cast iron boxes, which were fastened by bolts. The bridge supports were made from stone and faced with granite.
The casting of the bridge railings has a high artistic value. Their ornament has a form of palmettes (an artistic motif based on the fan-shaped leaves of a palm tree). The bridge entrance features floor lamps. Between 1954-1955 a restoration project took place under supervision of architect A.L. Rotach. Lost lamps, poles, and railing fragments were replaced.
Several houses near the bridge have special memorial plaques on their facades, noting the level of the water during the catastrophic flooding on November 7, 1824, described by Pushkin in the Bronze Horseman poem.
Stone Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
The Stone Bridge (Каменный мост) crosses the Griboyedov Canal on the axis of Gorokhovaya Street connecting Kazansky and Spassky islands in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It was built between 1774–78, and at the time it was one of the first bridges in Saint Petersburg made of stone, hence the name. Unlike many other bridges, this one did not undergo major reconstruction, and therefore preserves most of its original form from the 18th century.
The modern Stone Bridge was constructed in the period of 1774–78. Engineer V.I.Nazimov designed the project and engineer I.N.Borisov supervised the construction. The bridge replaced an older wooden Middle bridge which had existed at the same location since 1752. Prior to that time the bridges were wooden, and this was one of the first bridges built out of stone in St. Petersburg. The arch of the bridge is composed from granite. The facade features flat granite blocks which alternate with four face pyramid shaped blocks (see picture on the left). Initially, the bridge featured four curved stairs descending to the water, but they were removed at the end of 19th century. Except for that detail, the bridge remained unchanged through the centuries. The pattern of railing repeats the one of the embankment.
The arch of the bridge is moderately steep. The first buses that appeared in Saint Petersburg had problems entering the bridge. When a bus was full, the driver would ask passengers to exit the bus at the bridge entrance, and cross the bridge on foot, while the bus would go over it empty.
In the summer of 1880, the members of the Narodnaya Volya organization planted dynamite under the bridge with the intent to detonate it when the carriage carrying emperor Alexander II would be crossing the bridge. However, this operation was never realized, since the conspirators were not sure that seven poods (approximately 115 kilograms) of dynamite would be enough to bring down the bridge. The hidden dynamite was extracted from the bottom of the canal in spring of 1881, after Alexander's assassination, during the Trial of the Fourteen.
Design: Arch Bridge
Total length: 19.7 m
Flour Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
The Flour Bridge (Мучной мост) is a pedestrian bridge that crosses the Griboyedov Canal near Flour Alley in the Tsentralny District of Saint Petersburg.
The bridge got its name from the flour warehouses located nearby, which were built in the 18th century.
The first bridge at this place was built in 1931. It had three spans and carried heating pipes. In 1951 the bridge was rebuilt according to P. V. Bazhenov's design which converted it into a single span pedestrian bridge.
The arch of the bridge is created by a curvilinear steel beam which is supported by the quay walls. Gently sloping stairways descend at the ends of the bridge.
Design: Arch Bridge
Total length: 22.5 m
Width: 2.3 м
Bank Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Bank Bridge (Bankovsky most, Банковский мост) is a 25-m-long pedestrian bridge crossing the Griboedov Canal near the former Assignation Bank in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Like other bridges across the canal, the existing structure dates from 1826. The bridge engineer was Wilhelm von Traitteur, who conceived of a pedestrian separation structure suspended by cables. He was an engineer who also built other bridges over the Griboyedov Canal, Fontanka and Moika. The general management of the bridge construction was carried out by colonel E. A. Adam.
The special popularity of the bridge was gained through angular sculptures of four winged lions crowning the abutments. They were designed by sculptor Pavel Sokolov (1764-1835), who also contributed lions for Bridge of Lions and sphinxes for Egyptian Bridge. The bridge is in front of the former Assignation Bank building (now housing the Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance).
The bridge underwent numerous repairs and restorations, as well as structural modifications. In 1949 the wooden cover of the bridge was repaired, and later in 1951—1952 the wooden bearing structure of the bridge was replaced by a metal one. In 1967 and 1988 the gilding of the lions’ wings was renovated. In 1997 the sculptures and handrail lattice were restored. In 2007-2008 Griboyedov Canal Embankment from Kazan Cathedral to the Bank Bridge was renovated. Nowadays the winged lions are the symbol of St. Petersburg University of Economics and Finance.
There is a legend still propagated among the citizens that if you rub a lion’s paw, you will inevitably make a fortune.
Type of construction: Chain Bridge
Overall length: 25.2 m
width of the bridge: 1.9 m
Kazansky Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Kazansky Bridge (Каза́нский мост) crosses the Griboyedov Canal in the Tsentralny District of Saint Petersburg. From 1766 to 1830 it was called Rozhdestvensky Bridge (Рождественский мост) and from 1923 to 1944 it was Plekhanov Bridge (мост Плеханова). It is located near the Kazan Cathedral, hence the name. The bridge's length is 18.8 meters, and the width is 95.5 meters. It is second widest bridge in St. Petersburg after the Blue Bridge. The Kazansky Bridge is the lowest span in the city and therefore also the only bridge where sailing underneath it is prohibited.
The first existing crossing here was the wooden Rozhdenstvensky Bridge, built in 1716. The current bridge was built between 1765–1766 when the granite embankment of the Griboyedov Canal was created.
Italian Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal (with Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood in the background) 9.21.2014
The Italian Bridge (Италья́нский мост) crosses the Griboedov Canal in the Tsentralny District of Saint Petersburg, Russia. It is a single span, steel, pedestrian bridge next to Italian street, hence the name). The bridge's length is 19.66 meters long, and the width is 3 meters.
The bridge was built in 1896 in the place of a boat ferry as a single span wooden bridge which connected Big and Little Italian streets. The engineer was L.N. Kolpitsin. The novelty at the time was use of xilolit plates as a paving material. In 1902 the bridge was rebuilt for the first time, and between 1911-1912 it was rebuilt again.
In 1937 the bridge went through capital reconstruction, in order to fit two thermal pipes into it. In 1955 during the renovation of the Griboedov Canal embankments, the bridge was completely rebuilt again. Since then it has had its modern look.
Design Arch Bridge
Total length: 19.66 m
Width: 3 m
Little Stables (New Stables, Novo-Konyushenny) Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal (Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood in the background) 9.21.2014
The Little Stables Bridge (New Stables Bridge, Novo-Konyushenny, Мало Конюшенный мост, Ново-Конюшенный мост) crosses the Griboedov Canal in Saint Petersburg at Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood. It acts as an extension of the Stable Square.
The first wooden bridge was built here in the 1880s to assist the construction of the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood. During construction, the width of the bridge reached 115 meters (for comparison, the widest bridge in Saint Petersburg today, the Blue Bridge is 97.5 meters wide). When the cathedral was completed in 1907, the bridge remained in place and was named Church of the Resurrection of Christ Bridge. After October Revolution in 1917, it was renamed the bridge-overlap. In 1975, the new ferroconcrete bridge was built, and it was named the Grinevsky Bridge, after Ignacy Hryniewiecki, the assassin of Tsar Alexander II of Russia (who threw the bomb into the tzar's cart near the location of the modern bridge). In 1998 the bridge was given its current name, after the nearby Stable Square (Konyushennaya Square).
Theater Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal 9.21.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
The Theatre Bridge (Тройной_мост, formerly Red Bridge) was one of the first bridges across the Griboyedov Canal, dug in 1711 (formerly named the Catherine canal and then the Red canal).
The name Theatre was in honor of a wooden theater, on the Big Meadow (now the Field of Mars). The theater itself was built in 1770 and became famous under the name of the Empress Theater Meadow (on the stage of the theater, the premiere comedy DI Fonvizina "Oaf"). The theater lasted until 1797, when it was demolished because it hampered the parades on the Meadow.
Type of construction: Odnoprolёtny
The main span: A set of cast-iron tubing
Overall length: 18 m
width of the bridge: 15.6 m
Operation: Opening 1730 (wood), Reconstructed 1830
Tripartite (Small Konyushenny, Malo-Konyushenny) Bridge across the Moyka River 9.21.2014
Tripartite Bridge or Three-Arched Bridge (Трехколенный мост, Трехарочный мост, Тройной мост) is the name commonly applied to a pair of diminutive bridges, similar in design and decoration and situated perpendicularly to each other in front of the Church of the Savior on Blood.
The ensemble consists of 15-meter-long Theatre Bridge across the Griboyedov Canal and 18-metre-long Malo-Konyushennyi Bridge across the Moika River - both resting on a single Moika pier. Lipkin Bridge is also sometimes included in this group.
The bridges were first constructed in wood during the reign of Empress Anne. A century later, architect Carlo Rossi conceived to unify the structures facing the Michael Palace into a uniform Neoclassical ensemble. His plans were realized between 1829 and 1831 when the bridges were rebuilt and decorated with identical lamp posts and ironwork fences featuring palmettes, spears, and gorgons.
Thanks to repairs undertaken in 1936, 1953 and 1999, the bridge remains in good condition, and is still open to road and foot traffic.
Second Garden (Second Sadovy) Bridge the Moyka River 9.21.2014
From Saint Petersburg encyclopedia:
The Second Garden Bridge (2nd Sadovy, 2-й Садовый мост) crosses the the Moyka River at the Field of Mars. In 1876, a single span iron joist bridge with trusses on cast-iron piles for a horse tramway was constructed; in 1935, it was replaced by a three span joist wooden bridge. The modern bridge was constructed in 1966-67 (engineer E.A. Boltunova, architect L.A. Noskov), with a single span triple-jointed reinforced concrete frame; the supports were faced with granite. The cast-iron railing was executed to the same pattern for the railing of the stone bridge across the Tarakanovka River by Narvsky Gate (1830s, today filled in). In 1998, it was totally renewed, the standard lamps and enclosing rails were restored. The length is 42.8 metres, the width is 20 metres.
First Sadovy Bridge across the Moyka River 9.21.2014
From Saint Petersburg encyclopedia:
The First Garden Bridge (First Sadovy, 1-й Садовый мост) crosses the Moyka River at the Summer Garden on Sadovaya Street. In the early 19th century it was called the Second Tsaritsynsky Bridge, after the Tsaritsyn Medow. It was alson called Mikhailovsky bridge, after Mikhailovsky Castle. A wooden bridge on this site was shown on the map of 1716. In the early 19th century a new nogging bridge on stone foundations was constructed. In 1835-36, a stone bridge was built, which featured a bow-shaped flat brick arch with spacing rows of limestone plates and granite arches for the facades (by engineer P.P. Bazen, A.D. Gotman, and I.F. Buttatz). In 1906-07, the vault was replaced with iron double-hinged arches with a through spandrel (engineer thought to be A.P. Pshenitsky, architect L.A. Ilyin). In 1910 and 1913, cast-iron railings and standard lamps, with pike designs (following the type of the standard lamps of the Suvorovsky Pontoon Bridge) were installed. In 1951 and 1969, the architectural decor was restored with minor alterations. In 2002, the bridge was overhauled (engineers T.Y. Kuznetsova, Y.B. Devichinsky), and its decor was restored. It is 33.8 metres long and 20.4 metres wide.
Lower Swan Bridge (Nizhniy Lebyazhy) over the Swan Canal 9.21.2014
The Swan Canal separates two of St. Petersburg's most famous green spaces – the Field of Mars and the Summer Garden. It is one of the oldest canals in Russia, dug in the years 1711-1719. It also boasts one of the oldest stone bridges in the city, which was created by the famous architect Yury Felten.
At the beginning of the 18th century, the vast territory where the Field of Mars and the Summer Garden are located now was a marshland covered with impenetrable bush. To drain it, it was necessary to create a system of canals. One of these eventually became the Swan Canal. It was named only later, when swans began to settle there. This canal connected the Moyka River with the Neva and thus created the island which is occupied by the Summer Garden. Throughout the 18th century, the Swan Canal was continuously deepened and strengthened, but granite supports fixing the banks of the canal were only attached in the middle of the 20th century.
A pier on the canal was built in 1799. Decorating the pier were iron vases created by the prominent St. Petersburg architect Carlo Rossi. Two single-span bridges cross the Swan Canal: the Verkhniy Lebyazhy (Upper Swan) Bridge (Верхний Лебяжий мост — по Дворцовой набережной) on the Palace Embankment and the Nizhniy Lebyazhy (Lower Swan) Bridge (Нижний Лебяжий мост — по набережной Мойки) at the confluence with the Moyka River. The first was built in stone in 1768 and was replaced in 1927 with reinforced concrete, preserving the original form and granite cladding. The second bridge was built in 1837 and rebuilt in 1925. Today you can admire this bridge's beautiful latticework, also designed by Rossi.
On the right bank of Swan Canal near Palace Embankment stands the former palace of the Prince of Oldenburg. The palace currently houses the St. Petersburg State University of Culture and Arts. It was built in 1784-1787 by the French neoclassical architect Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe. Today small pleasure boats cruise along the beautiful Swan Canal.
First Engineer Bridge across the Moyka River (Panteleymonovsky Bridge across the Fontanka River in the Background) 9.21.2014
The First Engineer Bridge (1-й Инженерный мост) crosses the Moika River at the point where it joins the Fontanka River, between the Mikhailovsky Castle (formerly the Institute of Engineering, hence the bridge's name) and the Summer Garden. Designed by P. Bazen, the engineer responsible for many of St. Petersburg's most famous wrought iron bridges, the First Engineer Bridge was opened in 1826. Fully restored in 1999, the bridge is famous for its intricate railings featuring a repeated head of Medusa, the design of which was copied for the railings of the Summer Garden.
Large Stable (Bolshoy Konyushenny) Bridge across the Moyka River 9.21.2014
An attractive humpbacked bridge across the Moika River next to the old Imperial Stables, the Bolshoy Konyushenny Bridge (Большой Конюшенный мост) was built in 1828 on the site of a wooden drawbridge from 1753. The bridge is constructed from granite-faced abutments supporting a cast iron tubing vault. The cast iron railings are decorated with interlocking wreaths edged in gilt. The vault of the bridge is decorated with images of flora and fauna. The bridge's abutments also feature beautiful cast iron lanterns with a unique tripod design. The bridge's decorations were restored in 1999.