97. Footbridge in Ekateringof Park 9.22.2014
Footbridge in Ekateringof Park 9.22.2014
Translated from walkspb.ru
This area on the banks of the Ekateringofka River (formerly Black River) first made history on May 7, 1703 during the attack on two Swedish ships led by Peter I and Alexander Menshikov. That attack was the first naval victory of Peter. In the spring of 1711 he commanded the architect JB Leblond to build a wooden structure near the Black River, and dig a channel to it. Gardener D. Broketu was instructed to arrange the garden around the building.
Peter I gave the estate to his wife Catherine, on the occasion of their wedding. The estate was named "Ekateringof", (the court of Catherine). A road was created from the Peterhof so that Ekateringof could be accessed by sea and land.
Catherine lived here with her daughters Anna and Elizabeth. Peter I ordered separate palaces for Anna and Elizabeth, Annengof and Elizavethof. In addition to residential buildings there was a household yard, cereal and vegetable oil mills. Nearby, was the tapestry factory and the paper mill.
Ekateringof, as well as St. Petersburg, suffered from flooding. After one of the most destructive floods, in 1715, Peter I ordered Leblond to build pools to lower the water level. However the estate was continually effected from the effect of the floods. As a consequence, the royal family began to visit the Ekateringof less oftern. Regular visits to the estate were only scheduled during first days of May to commemorate of the first naval victory of the king.
After the death of Peter I the manor came into neglect. Empress Anna Ivanovna intended to rebuild it, but never had the time.
Elizabeth, remembering her childhood spent in Ekateringof days, decided to revive the estate. Between 1747-1750 under the leadership of Mr. van Boles and his assistant Ivan Slyadneva, the palace was extended by an extension to the side wings. On both sides of the palace on the shore of the harbor was also built two new buildings. Disassembled parts of the Summer Garden Summer Palace of Anna Ivanovna were used for material. The main building of the palace with these wings was connected to an outdoor terrace with a balustrade. The buildings around the landscaped garden, canal and ponds were cleaned. The ponds took a rectangular shape to protected the wooden areas.
The Annengofe palace was renovated. New housing was built, also using the parsed Palace of Anna Ivanovna. Elizavethof was affected by the floods in 1752, and afterwards ceased to exist.
By the command of Elizabeth, Ekateringof organized exemplary dairying. A farmyard was built here, a calf shed, and cellar. The surrounding meadows grazed cows.
Elizabeth revived the tradition of visiting the royal family Yekaterinhof in the first days of May. The meaning of the celebration of the first naval victory was soon forgotten. They just celebrated the arrival of spring and early summer. Since 1755, the townspeople would attend Ekateringof on Thursdays and Sundays for recreation. The park became one of the hot spots in St. Petersburg.
Catherine II preserved the tradition of the May festivities in Ekateringof. In 1762, by decree of its architect A. Vista a stone fence with a lattice was built around the oaks planted by Peter I in 1715. An orchard and vegetable gardens were organized alongside the dairy farm. In the early 1770's trees were planted along the along the access channel.
In 1764 Annengof was leased to the Italian Locatelli. In the palace they had masquerade parties, dinners, and opera. In 1766, this institution welcomed Casanova.
Catherine II's interest in Ekateringof gradually faded. In 1779, the wings on the sides of the access channel were dismantled. The farmstead once again began to decline. Numerous duels were staged here. The poet Derzhavin was involved in one of them.
Paul I presented Ekateringof his mistress AP Gagarin. The emperor ordered the townspeople to meet on Nevsky Prospekt for May holidays. After the death of Paul I, festivities in the park resumed. Alexander I gave the jurisdiction of Ekateringof to the city authorities.
In 1823, the Governor-General MA Miloradovich began a park beautification project. O. Montferrand was commissioned the garden work, along with pavilions. The palace was redesigned by MA Ovsyannikova.
The boundaries of the park were expanded, to a total area of 37 hectares. The borders were designated as the Ekateringofka and Tarakanovka Rivers and the paper feed. Ekateringofsky (now Livonia) street separated the old part of the park from the new.
The Montferrand complex of pavilions in Yekaterinhof became the first in the history of Russian architecture as an example of the transition from classicism to eclecticism. The architect freely built in different neostyles. Near Ekateringofka the wooden Farm with Lions Pavilion was created in the Gothic style. In the same "taste" was erected Sliding Hill. In the landscape of the park Montferrand built Ekaterinofsky "Vauxhall" - another wooden Gothic pavilion, designed for summer concerts and balls. Explaining the plan "Vauxhall" Montferrand wrote: "The ballroom is located in the center between the large hall of the restaurant and in the same room cafe, each of these rooms are adjacent to four salons for visitors. Salons located in a billiard room and other facilities for the games."
Not far from the "Vauxhall" in kindergarten, appeared Moorish pavilion, decorated in an exotic oriental style. Near the picturesque lake Montferrand built a Russian restaurant, decorated in Russian style
. In one of these pavilions is a portrait of the poet Khvostova. That the tail that Miloradovich disliked Pushkin. Was not the great Russian poet and admirer Yekaterinhof. As a result, Pushkin wrote the epigram "inscription to the gates Yekaterinhof":
Tail once glorified hole!
You proclaim the nature of the Russian avarice,
autocracy of Peter
And Miloradovich stupidity.
Near the bridge was installed the Molvinskim column of red granite. The image of the column is very similar to the Alexandrinskaya column, so it is considered the prototype of the monument at the Palace Square.
Through the surrounding park twists a river with two bridges. One of the crossings was made of wood. The second, located on the western edge of the park, was the first Russian suspension bridge, designed by P. Bazin. There is a nice view of the bridge to Gutuevsky island where fishermen's huts were built in the style of Italian rural buildings.
The ponds around the driveway were cleared, giving them a semi-circular shape. The drainage channels near the ponds turned into annular channels. In the eastern part of the garden pond irregular shapes were dug. Around him had a horse racing track. Renovated park was opened May 1, 1825.
Ekateringofsky palace became a museum, Russia's first Palace Museum. The collection included personal belongings of Peter like furniture, household items, and rare books about the emperor.
The Ekateringof festivities remained in May. In the winter ice rinks, toboggan runs were organized. The Trinity was celebrated in Ekateringof.
In 1848, the palace of Ekateringofsky taken the museum's exhibits. They gave Peter Gallery of the Winter Palace. Over time, the festivities in Ekateringof lost its popularity. Since the 1860s gardening began to weaken. Farm since 1866, rented out, and then adapted for the hospital. Montferrand pavilions were demolished or burned down. By the end of XIX, when the area became an industrial suburb of St. Petersburg, here rested not know the capital and workers. Their leisure time engaged in Custody national sobriety and revolutionaries. Last exhibits taken from the palace in 1903 in the Summer Garden, after which it was closed to visitors.
After 1917, the palace took Ekateringofsky youth organizations. After the fires in 1923, 1925, and 1926, the building was dismantled. In 1933, the park was renamed the May 1st park. The garden was landscaped. The channel and ponds were cleared. In the early 1930s a stage was built, along with children's playgrounds, amusements, and a theater.
During the Second World War gun emplacements there were stationed there. In 1942, part of the park was designed as a garden. In 1944 the full park was restored.
In 1948, the park was renamed after the 30th anniversary of the Young Communist League. In 1949, near the entrance to the park, a monument was erected to the Heroes Krasnodona: Oleg Koshevoy, Ulyana Thunder, Lyubov Shevtsova, and Ivan Sergei Zemnukhova. This monument is a copy of the monument in the city of Krasnodon. On the shore of the pond, east of the garden, a gazebo was installed. On the opposite shore is a sculpture. Only the pedestals now remain.
The historical name Ekateringof returned in 1992. A horse riding club continues to operate there.