150. Palace Bridge across the Bolshaya Neva River 9.26.2014
Palace (Dvortsoviy) Bridge across the Bolshaya Neva River (with the Admiralty Embankment in the background) 9.26.2014
Translated from Russian Wikipedia:
The Palace Bridge (Dvortsoviy, Дворцо́вый мост) is a drawbridge across the Neva River in Saint Petersburg which connects the central part of the city (Admiralty Island) and Vasilievsky Island. It is located on the axis of the Palace Embankement and Exchange Square. The length of the bridge is 250 meters and the width is 27.7 m. It consists of five spans. The divorced dipterous central span is one of the city's premier symbols.
The bridge name comes from its proximity to the Winter Palace and the Palace Embankment. Between 1917 and 1944 the bridge was named the Republic.
In 1853, Nicholas I approved the request for a pontoon bridge connecting the Winter Palace with the Stock Exchange and other institutions in the trading port. The new highway bridge was developed by engineer IK Gerard, and had wooden abutments and rails. Artistic cast iron floor lamps were installed on the bridge. The spans were a strut attachment design. The project took more than three years, and was completed December 10, 1856. It would often break apart during periods of ice and freeze.
In 1896, the floating palace bridge was moved 53.25 m downstream to where a permanent bridge would later be erected. The transfer was associated with the decision to create a landscaped area in front of the western facade of the Winter Palace. The work started in the winter 1896, and ended December 23, 1897; when the bridge was dedicated and opened to traffic. In 1912, after the start of construction of a permanent bridge, the pontoon bridge was transferred to the Senate Square, where it remained until 1916, when it accidentally caught fire.
In April 1901 a competition was held for the construction of two permanent bridges, Palace and Bolsheokhtinsky. Because of the Russian-Japanese War, the Revolution of 1905, and the events that followed, there was a break in the design of the Palace Bridge.
By the spring of 1908 a panel of experts had developed new technical conditions for the drafting of a permanent Palace Bridge. It was stated that the draw span should be in the middle of the river with a width of at least 42.67 m. The contest received 9 projects. The French Company "Batignolles" was selected along with Company Kolomna Plant, and prominent St. Petersburg engineer AP Pshenitsky.
On February 5, 1911 an agreement was signed with the Company Kolomna Plant, according to which the construction of the bridge and its tests were to be completed by 15 November 1913. In this case, it was stipulated that all work must be carried out with domestic material using Russian workers and Russian engineers.
The deadline was impossible to sustain for many reasons A flood damaged one of the towers under construction. The outbreak of the First World War also stalled construction. The engineering wasn't complete until the end of 1916.
In October 1916, at a meeting of the City Council, it was decided to open the palace bridge in an unfinished form, erecting a "temporary" wooden railing and using standard cast iron poles for lights and tram wires. Wood flooring was used for the decking on the permanent spans, thrust bridge, and the draw span. The upper part of the legs were covered with wood, and instead of granite parapets, the supports and abutments were covered with plywood. A strength test was carried out on December 17, 1916 with 34 trucks, each with a load weighing more than 600 pounds entered the bridge at the same time. The bridge was opened to traffic on December 23, 1916. At the opening ceremony (unlike other bridges built across the Neva River) only ten percent of those invited showed up. Mayor Delianov had deputy Demkina cut the ribbon.
The cast iron lattice railings didn't appear until 1939. Designed by architect LA Noskov, these grilles were molded by sculptor IV Krestovsky.
The bridge was renovated in 1967. In 1977, it was redesigned by architect YI Tits, MV Vynnychenka, and engineers TD Ivanova, and VI Botvinnik. Reconstruction included lighting, flooring, and movable parts. In 1997, the bridge was reconstructed under the direction of Yuri Petrov.
The bridge is 250 meters long and the width between railings is 27.73 m. The width of the roadway is 22.0 m (with 3 lanes of traffic in each direction) and two 2.85 m sidewalks.
It is a pyatiprolёtny metal bridge with a swing span in the middle. The permanent spans are metal riveted through-girder trusses of a continuous system with curved belts. The weight of the steel structures is 7770 tons (including the 2,800 ton counterweights). The partitioning scheme for the spans is: (38.63 + 47.12) + (9.20 + 58.60 + 9.20) + (47.12 + 38.63) m. The navigable marker is 22,0 × 6,3 (30.00) m.
The stationary spans are dvuhprolёtnye metal riveted through truss girder of a continuous system - 38.63 + 47.12 m. The span cross-section consist of eight main trusses with a curved bottom chord truss system. The distance between the main trusses is 3.6 m. The roadway is formed as a metal deck secured to the top chord and the transverse girders over which is laid a layer of concrete and roadway covering.
The draw span diptera is an unfolding system of hinged counterweights with a fixed axis of rotation, with an electromechanical drive. In the induced state the superstructure works under the scheme of a trehsharnirnoy arch. Each wing of the draw span is a balanced system, suspended from the bottom of the hinges. The bridge balances fall into wells of poles, which are located at a depth of 6.0 meters below the normal level of water in the Neva. In cross-section the span consists of eight main trusses with downward slanted and curved bottom chord. The sections are H-shaped and box. Within the length of the wing the main beams are interconnected by longitudinal and transverse links. The weight of the wing is 700 metric tons and the mass balances are 1,400 metric tons. The unique adjustable bridge mechanism consists of a motor, the large gear (some of which are solid, preserved from the opening of the bridge) and tysyachetonnyh balances.
Foundations for the left bank abutment and all of the piers are built on caissons, descended to a depth of 23.5 - 25.89 m from the normal level and filled with concrete-cameras. The caisson concrete and reinforced concrete masonry is faced with granite. The right-bank abutment is supported on a wooden pile foundation. The right bank abutment to the water with a pad lined with granite.
The curb is 450 mm high granite, on the on stationary spans and 400 mm high metal on the draw span. The spans are paved with grained asphalt concrete. There is a cast iron railing with individual artistic casting. On the supports and abutments the railing ends into granite parapets. There are 16 poles plus 4 on the draw span with architectural decoration for lighting and catenary on the bridge.
By 2008, according to Mostotrest, the Palace Bridge had exhausted its resources. A major overhaul was delayed until construction of a new bridge on Vasilevsky island. Repair was launched October 21, 2012, without the construction of temporary ferries, which greatly complicated the already tense transport situation. The renovated bridge was inaugurated October 19, 2013.
Type of construction:
constant overflights - through metal truss girder of a continuous system; dipterous draw span
number of spans:
5 (39 + 47 + 59 + 47 + 39)
width of the bridge:
Height of the arch above the water:
Closed for reconstruction:
59 ° 56'28 "with. sh. 30 ° 18'30 "to. d. (G) (O) (I)